Events of the Decade:
Napoleon Bonaparte and the Wars of the French Revolution; France vs. Austria, Prussia, Turkey Netherlands, Sardinia, Naples, Britain, Holland, Spain and Holy Roman Empire
Russia ends 2nd war with Turkey
Drought and famine in India
100,000 slaves revolt in Haiti
Whiskey Rebellion in U.S. by PA farmers against govt.
End of the War of the First Coalition-France vs. Prussia
First 11 amendments to U.S. Constitution + Bill of Rights
Indian Wars in US-Ohio & Delaware
Sir Alexander Mackenzie explores western Canada; blazes trails through Rockies to Pacific
1st U.S. census shows 3.9 million in 16 states and Ohio Territory
Population of China 275 million
President John Adams
King Louis XVI of France
Napoleon Bonaparte and his wife Joséphine de Beauharnais
Maximilien Robespierre of France
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Kia-King, Manchu Emperor of China
Boxer David Mendoza
Marquis de Sade
Captain Horatio Nelson
Frederick William III (Prussia)
Empress Catherine II of Russia
Czar Paul I of Russia
15,000 in volcano eruption in Shimabara, Japan sweeping town into sea
Earthquakes kill 53,000 in Japan, 41,000 in Ecuador and 50,000 in Italy
Some 800,000 in the Great Plague of Egypt and another 300,000 later in North Africa
40,000 royalists in French Reign of Terror
Qianlong Period of the Qing Dynasty ends in China
King Louis XVI of France
Benjamin Franklin, 84
Catherine the Great
Madame du Barry
George Washington, 67
Carlo Goldoni, 86
Emperor Joseph II of Austria
Emperor Leopold II of Austria
Charles Nicolas Cochin, 75
John Wesley, 88
Gustavus II of Sweden
Louis XVII Dauphin of France
John Paul Jones
Pope Pius VI
Adam Smith, 63
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, 35
Gustavus III of Sweden
Joshua Reynolds, 69
Robert Adam, 64
Slave Trade in Denmark, French colonies
Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, 67
Jean Paul Marat
Josiah Wedgwood, 65
Duke of Orléans
Edward Gibbon, 57
Antoine Lavoisier, 50
Josiah Wedgwood, 65
James Boswell, 56
Robert Burns, 37
Horace Walpole, 80
Edmund Burke, 68
John Wilkes, 70
Napoleon Bonaparte almost everywhere but France
Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin
First steam-rolling mill and carpet mill (Philadelphia)
Mammoth found in Siberia!
First horse-drawn railroad in England
Sugar refinery in New Orleans
Etienne Gaspard Robers" Magic Lantern Shows in Paris - Phantasmagore
Metric system in France
First ambulance service in France
Preserving jars for meat and vegetables invented by French chef Nicholas Appert
Cremation in the US
Philadelphia as Capital of U.S., then Washington DC
Field Tennis in England
Lithography and the hydraulic press
Dancing the waltz in England
Unemployment insurance in Switzerland
U.S. warship "Constitution" (Old Ironsides)
Thomas Sheraton's furniture designs in England; Duncan Phyfe's in America
Universities of Vermont, Tennessee, Louisville
First penitentiary in U.S.: Walnut Street Jail in Philly
Old Ironsides launched
Patent and copyright laws in the U.S.
Washington D.C. laid out
Political Parties in U.S.- Republican and Federal
Inventions: Grain thresher, Hemp swigler, Marble polisher, Cloth nap raiser, Screw-making machine, Equation clock, Lithographic process, The Hydraulic Press, the Stove
1st elephant in the U.S.
The Guillotine in France
Bentham's woodworking machinery
The White House in DC
Samuel Coleridge & R. Southey's "The Fall of Robespierre"
Fredrich von Schiller's "Wallenstein"
Johann von Goethe's "Torquato"
Richard Brinsley Sheridan's "Pizarro"
Thomas Morton's "The Way to Get Married"
Wordsworth "The Borderers"
J.B. Ricketts's circus in Philadelphia
Bass clarinet and lever-keyed trumpet developed
Paris Conservatoire de Musique founded
Mozart's "Cosi Fan Tutte" and his last opera "The Magic Flute" and Requiem
La Fenice Opera House in Venice built
Haydn's "Surprise, " "Drumroll" and "Clock" Symphonies, "Kettledrum" Mass and Emperor Quartet. Also The Creation (oratorio)
Luigi Cherubini's operas "Lodoiska" and "Medea"
"La Marseillaise" by C.J. Rouget de Lisle
Earliest American Opera - "Tammany or The Indian Chief" by James Hewitt
London Symphony Orchestra
Paris Conservatory of Music founded
Benjamin Carr's opera "The Archers of Switzerland" in New York
Beethoven's 2nd Piano Concerto, "Pathétique" Sonata in C minor, Three piano trios, Symphony No. 1 in C major
Child protégé violinist Paganini
Hit Songs -
"Auld Lang Syne," "Comin" Thro" the rye"
Publishers J.B. Lippincott and Thomas Nelson & Sons founded in U.S. and Britain respectively
Schlegel and Tieck translate Shakespeare into German
James Bruce "Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile."
Robert Burns" "Tam O"Shanter," "A Red, Red Rose," "Scots," "Auld Lang Syne"
Edmund Burke's "Reflections 0n the French Revolution"
James Boswell's "Life of Samuel Johnson"
"Justine" and "Juliet" by Marquis de Sade and "La Philosophie Dans le Boudoir," a novel
Thomas Paine's "Rights of Man," "The Age of Reason"
William Blake's "Songs of Experience," "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell"
Goethe's "Wilhelm Meister"
Schiller's "Letters Concerning the Aesthetic Education of Mankind"
National Library of Lisbon founded
Wordsworth and Coleridge "Lyrical Ballads"
Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner," "Kubla Khan"
1st Copyright laws in U.S.; Philadelphia Spelling Book 1st U.S. book to get copyright
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "Julie ou la Nouvelle Héloïse"
Amelia Simmons first American cookbook
The Louvre opens- French National Art Gallery
Goya's "The Duchess of Alba," "The Nude Maja," "Procession of the Flagellants," "Los Caprichos" and his tapestry cartoons including "El Pelele"
J.M.W. Turner's "Millbank, Moonlight"
David's "Rape of the Sabine Women," "Death of Marat"
Guardi's "Gondola on the Lagoon"
Canova's sculpture "Cupid and Psyche"
Gilbert Stuart's portrait of George Washington
Fashion & Beauty:
Short top coat without tails - The Spencer Jacket
Wigs and powdered hair are out; haircuts are in. Hair still worn in queue tied with black ribbon
The top hat in Britain
Linen shirts and cravats
Cut-away fronts on jackets
Spencer jackets for women
Bustles out, lighter fabrics in, waistlines rise to just below bust
Feathers in France
Velvet and straw hats
Gauze and satin dresses
The Farmer's Almanac in Boston
The Observer of London 1st Sunday paper in the world
Allgemeine Zeitung founded
Freedom of the Press in France
Baltimore Sunday Monitor, 1st Sunday paper in U.S.
Bill of Rights grants guarantee of freedom of press in U.S.
Income tax introduced in Britain. (10% of all income over £200)
First copper pennies and £1 notes in Britain
First tax on liquor - Internal Revenue Act in US
First mint established in U.S.
First bank in U.S. - Manhattan Co. later Chase Manhattan
First securities exchange in Philly then NY
Stock brokers fix rates in N.Y. (later stock exchange)
Life insurance in the U.S.
Adam Smith's "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" published
Congress fixes gold prices
Copper, gold, and silver coins authorized
Value of Continental currency issued at end of Revolution shrinks so $40 in paper only buys $1 of silver.
John Carroll is first Catholic bishop of America
Christianity abolished in France
Buddhists revolt in China against Manchus
Eastern Orthodox Church established in North America by Russian monks in Alaska
Civil liberties granted Jews in France
Baptist Missionary Society in London
Freedom of worship in France
Church Missionary Society founded in London
African Church at Philadelphia
Homeopathy founded in 1794 by Samuel Hahnemann in Germany
Henry Cavendish determines the mean density of the earth
Rumford's discovery-heat is generated by friction
Psychiatry originates when doctor in French insane asylum recognizes emotional causes of illness
Smallpox vaccinations - first effective vaccine - introduced in England by Edward Jenner
First Caesarean operation
First pills as medicine
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) as an anesthetic
Rosetta Stone discovered in northern Egypt; hieroglyphic inscriptions from 2nd Century B.C.
Theory of black holes in space developed by Pierre-Simon Laplace; publishes works on celestial mechanics
Lavoisier's "Table of 31 Chemical Elements"
Olbers" method of calculating orbits of comets
First medical magazine in New York
New Slang Words:
A fool's paradise
The fourth estate (newspapers)
To live from hand to mouth
To keep the wolf from the door
The lion's share
To make the best of a bad job/bargain
To be (not be) out of the woods
Warm the cockles of one's heart
To badger someone
Between you and me and the gatepost
Not worth a continental (shrinking of value of paper money)
From stem to stern
About These Tools
An introduction to History by Decades by Larry Belling. More...